The report examines how policy-makers, the donor community, and the private sector have prioritized and sequenced ICT initiatives in the aftermath of conflict. In addition, the report proposes a conceptual framework to understand how ICTs can contribute to improving service delivery and assisting with nation-building.
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The Case Studies
The Role of ICT in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste
At the 10-year anniversary of Timor-Leste's National Development Plan, this case study reflects on the role of information and communications technologies (ICTs) for the young nation's development and national integration. The study analyzes the current status, promising initiatives and future challenges related to using ICT for economic growth, social development and post-conflict reconciliation in Timor-Leste.
The report, carried out by Chanuka Wattegama (LIRNEasia) draws on in-country research and interviews with key players in government, the private sector and development agencies, and builds on existing analyses on the economic aspects of such technologies in Timor-Leste and elsewhere in the developing world.
Towards Transformation - ICT in Post-Conflict Rwanda
Following the violent genocide and civil war in 1994, Rwanda has seenconsiderable progress on the path towards recovery and sustainable growth. Notable in this effort has been a strong and sustained emphasis on information and communication technology (ICT). Starting from dire conditions, the country has put ICT at the core of a reform agenda geared towards reconstruction and higher levels of development.
This mini case study, carried out by Nicolas Friederici, with support from Kevin Donovan and Abdigani Jama, describes the ICT reform process that Rwanda has begun around 2000, and provides an overview of policies and programs that have shaped the country’s attempts at economic transformation. It recounts the NICI plans in the context of Vision 2020 and highlights four notable case studies of ICT projects, namely the Karisimbi Project, the eRwanda program, TRACnet, and One Laptop Per Child. The report finds that neither the strategies nor the specific programs have been without their troubles, and ICT has certainly not been a cure-all in post-conflict Rwanda. Yet, the manner in which technology has been employed—especially with high-level support—contains lessons for other countries seeking to emerge from difficult situations
Tunisia: from revolutions to institutions
In the wake of the Arab Spring revolution, Tunisian society is currently undergoing a significant transformation. In late 2011, the country’s first representative government in more than three decades was formed, as the Constituent Assembly was seated. Hundreds of legitimate candidates ran in an election that was free, fair, and enjoyed nearly 90% participation by eligible voters. This report, published one year after the exile of Ben Ali, seeks to describe the factors driving this transformation, examining how specific elements of society have changed (and not changed) in the post-revolutionary period.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs), which played a central role in the lead-up to the revolution as well as the revolution itself, have continued to influence rapid changes in the past year. This report, prepared by Zach Brisson and Kate Krontiris of Reboot, charts the application of these technologies in everyday life, and identifies opportunities to capitalize on them
Afghanistan's ICT Sector: From transition to transformation
Afghanistan is one of the world’s poorest countries, and has experienced many years of violent conflict. Continuous conflict since 1979 to the end of the last century destroyed most of the country’s infrastructure and left millions of its citizens in exile. The collapse of the Taliban regime in 2001 led to a new government in Kabul and a re-opening of Afghanistan into the world, but insurgency has continued in parts of the country and the government has continued to be dependent on external military and development support. Central and local government institutions remain fragile as the country seeks to move from conflict to post-conflict status, with the withdrawal of international military support now imminent.
Challenges to development thus remain for Afghanistan in all sectors, including communications. Nevertheless, since 2001, the country has seen significant progress in the development of its infrastructure and there have been improvements in the delivery of government services to citizens.
The ICT sector has played a significant part in this transition. The number of telephone lines in the country has grown from less than 20 thousand in 2001 to some 20 million today, in a population of about 30 million. The country is connecting to global information networks in the Middle East and South and Central Asia and is benefitting from the development of a national fiber optic backbone. More diverse and plural media and information sources are now available, though their sustainability remains in question. This chapter summarizes that experience, accompanied by a video prepared as part of the World Bank program on ICTs in post-conflict reconstruction.
Cables, Commissions, and Cybercafés: ICTs in Post-Conflict Liberia
This report examines three disparate issues in relation to Liberia's access to and use of information communication technology (ICT) after the peace agreement of 2003. The study examines three disparate issues in relation to Liberia’s access to and use of information communication technology (ICT) after the peace agreement of 2003. Its three chapters provide key insights into how well the government of Liberia is achieving its ICT policy goals; Liberia’s 2010 National ICT & Telecommunications Policy states that Liberia’s development depends in part on its people’s ability to produce, use and sell ICT services. Applying different perspectives on the evolution of ICTs in Liberia, the study covers a range of topics; from an approach for improving international connectivity, to how Liberians use the internet, to a single intervention for improving the website of the TRC. All chapters represent unique aspects of the Liberian experience Its three chapters provide key insights into how well the government of Liberia is achieving its ICT policy goals; Liberia’s 2010 National ICT & Telecommunications Policy states that Liberia’s development depends in part on its people’s ability to produce, use and sell ICT services. Applying different perspectives on the evolution of ICTs in Liberia, the study covers a range of topics; from an approach for improving international connectivity, to how Liberians use the internet, to a single intervention for improving the website of the TRC. All chapters represent unique aspects of the Liberian experience and point to the past, present and potential future roles of ICTs in the conflict-torn country.